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Compromiso con la selva

Contaminación plástica en más del 80 % de las especies de peces de agua dulce en la Amazonía

Una reciente investigación de la Universidad Federal de Pará en Brasil examinó los contenidos estomacales de los peces de agua dulce del río Xingu en Brasil, hallando la evidencia del consumo de partículas de plástico y otros desechos en cada uno de los tres gremios tróficos (herbívoros, omnívoros, carnívoros).

Las pruebas estomacales se aplicaron en 172 especímenes de 16 especies de la Amazonia, y revelaron partículas plásticas en más del 80 % de las especies examinadas, incluyendo el omnívoro Loro Pachu, el herbívoro Dólar de Plata de Azuelo Rojo y la Piraña de Vientre Rojo que se alimenta de carne.

Los especialistas identificaron una docena de polímeros distintos utilizados para fabricar artículos de plástico, incluyendo bolsas, botellas y artes de pesca. La mayoría de los residuos eran negros, rojos, azules, blancas o translúcidas y variaba de partículas de 1 mm a escamas de 15 mm de ancho.

De esta manera, la contaminación en los ríos estaría afectando la vida silvestre del mundo. La razón típicamente aceptada es que las piezas ingresan a los cuerpos de agua de la Amazonía y se degradan en partículas de plástico y micro-plástico que pueden ser ingeridas por los peces.

El proceso puede darse en todas las especies. Los herbívoros suelen confundir piezas de plástico con semillas, frutas y hojas. Por otro lado, los omnívoros pueden ingerir plásticos en las macrófitas; plantas que constituyen gran parte de su alimentación. Mientras que los carnívoros suelen consumir desechos plásticos cuando comen presas contaminadas.

“Fue una triste sorpresa porque en la etapa inicial de nuestra investigación, el objetivo principal era comprender la ecología de la alimentación de los peces, pero cuando comenzamos a analizar los contenidos del estómago, encontramos plástico”, mencionó Tommaso Giarrizzo.

Esta información se suma a los datos generales de contaminación que causa del plástico. La ONU lo califica como “catástrofe ambiental mundial”. Cerca de 13.000.000 toneladas de plástico se filtra al océano cada año. Por ello, ha hecho un llamado para acabar con el “uso excesivo y el aumento del consumo de plásticos de un solo uso”.

Y es que aproximadamente 1 millón de bolsas de plástico se utilizan cada minuto. Una sola bolsa puede tardar unos 1.000 años en degradarse. Ante ello, han surgido diversas opciones ecológicas para dar solución al problema ambiental mundial evitando el uso de bolsas plásticas.

En México, por ejemplo, el 1 de enero de 2020 entró en vigor la prohibición de producir y comercializar bolsas plásticas en Ciudad de México. A la fecha diferentes empresas incluyen en su servicio la posibilidad de adquirir bolsas ecológicas elaboradas de polipropileno, bioplástico, algodón orgánico y otros materiales amigables con el medio ambiente. De igual forma con el uso de las pajitas de plástico, pues se ha concientizado a renunciar a la comodidad de las mismas.

 

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Compromiso con la selva

Economía circular en la infancia

 

En setiembre del 2019, la gobernación del Amazonas firmó un pacto por la Economía Circular para la Región, con la finalidad de contribuir en el posicionamiento de los bienes, valores y servicios ambiental y ecológicos del departamento. Pero, ¿qué es exactamente la economía circular? 

 

La economía circular consiste en producir, consumir, reutilizar/reparar y reciclar. Es una economía de la funcionalidad: priorizamos el uso frente a la posesión. Se fabrica y envasa productos que pueden hacer la diferencia. Una vez consumidos, reutilizamos los productos o partes de los mismos. Reparamos para darles una segunda vida, y hacemos una valorización de aquellos residuos que no se pueden reciclar.  

 

La economía circular en la infancia 

Afortunadamente, el concepto de la economía circular puede emplearse en cualquier sector empresarial, incluso en la industria de productos dirigidos para bebés y niños. 

 

Pañales ecológicos

La firma Bebés Ecológicos afirmó que anualmente se sacrifican 30 millones de árboles para la producción de pañales desechables, ya que se tala al menos 10 árboles por niño y se generan toneladas de residuos no biodegradables. Asimismo, en un estudio que realizaron en 2007 comprobaron que el uso de el uso de pañales reutilizables supuso el ahorro de 5.420 árboles. Aseguraron que esta cifra se elevaría a aproximadamente cinco millones, si es que cada niño nacido en territorio español optará por esta opción ecológica durante sus primeros dos años y medio. 

Lo cierto es que los pañales desechables están hechos a partir de celulosa, la materia prima que se obtiene de la deforestación de árboles. Desgraciadamente, la tala y quema indiscriminada de árboles amenaza la Amazonia, la bioreserva más grande de la Tierra. 

En cambio, los pañales ecológicos están fabricados con materiales biodegradables, que tardan siete años en ser absorbidos por la naturaleza, por lo que contribuyen al cuidado ambiental. Habitualmente están confeccionados de tela, pero constan de un cobertor o impermeable, un absorbente y un forro desechable hecho de bambú.

 

Ropa

La industria textil es la segunda más contaminante del planeta. Y aunque, diferentes marcas como H&M o Vans han manifestado su rechazo ante la actitud pasiva de gobernantes frente a los incendios en el Amazonas, pertenecen a una industria que contribuye a la contaminación. Así, incluso, la diseñadora Eileen Fisher calificó a la industria textil como la segunda más contaminante después del petróleo. Y es que, se afirma que la este sector comercial emite un 10 % de todo el C02 al año y corta alrededor de 70 millones de árboles. 

Los bebés dejan mucha ropa que ya no utilizan, debido a que en sus primeros años crecen rápidamente. Por eso, debemos ser conscientes sobre la producción de sus prendas, y en la medida posible apostar por la reutilización. Además, existe ropa ecológica para bebé, la cual protege el medio ambiente y es beneficiosa para salud del bebé. Estas prendas están elaboradas con materiales naturales como algodón orgánico, no están tintadas con químicos sino por colocares procedentes de plantas y, por supuesto, no llevan blanqueadores ni tóxicos. 

En el 2006 se creó en Europa las Normas Textiles Orgánicas Globales (GOTS) que mediante un certificado acredita que una prenda o marca utiliza materiales orgánicos. No obstante, lo ideal continúa siendo la reutilización de ropa

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Ayúdanos a Salvar la Selva del Amazonas

Help us Save the Amazon Rainforest

The Amazon rainforest is a lush garden that is displayed to the world as a beautiful green island that covers 7 million km2, within which it hosts the greatest biodiversity on the planet, this is 33% of animal and plant species in the world.

The “lung of the world”, as the Amazon is known, recycles more than 2 billion tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and converts it into pure Oxygen (O2) for all mankind, this represents 22% a world level In addition, it produces 25% of the planet’s fresh water.

What dangers threaten the existence of the beautiful Amazon rainforest? Why are 1.4 M hectares of forest lost every year? What is the relationship with the greenhouse effect that has caused so much damage to the earth? and how can you help save the Amazon ?; Know the answers, below.

Problems Affecting the Amazon

Currently, the Amazon is threatened by human greed; which has produced immense destruction through large cattle ranches, huge agribusinesses, mining and logging companies, the construction of hydroelectric dams and the method of logging and burning of small farmers.

Each of these elements from its own corner and in its eagerness for power and wealth coupled with ignorance, mistreats the land that has been generously given to humanity to be cared for and maintained in perfect balance for its own existence.

An example is the fact that a tree takes 60 to 70 years to grow. But those who cut them in an excessive way to provide more space

for their livestock or their crops, they devastate forests in minutes. Surprisingly, they are able to disappear areas the size of a

soccer field daily. Recent reports indicate that in recent years the Amazon rainforest has lost an area as huge as the country of Germany.

When the vegetal layer is eliminated quickly, the problem of soil erosion is generated, which costs to recover again, because it loses the nutrients that leave with the rain, which eventually leads to the creation of large areas desert like the one in Africa.

And if there are no trees that absorb and store the nutrients that crops need to conserve soil fertility, it can have its consequences, since these trees that provide fodder are home to billions of animals, who are also threatened with their existence and therefore the balance of nature.

When talking about an endangered species, it refers to a complete class of animals that are not released for 50 years. For example, the monkey Tamarín de Goeldi who only lives, feeds and reproduces in the Amazon rainforest and is currently in danger of extinction.

The use and abuse of burning as a method of cleaning an area creates another major problem for the Amazon. A daily campfire the size of a football field produces a high amount of CO2 that feeds the greenhouse at very fast rates.

This uncontrolled deforestation technique eliminates natural filters that can help counteract the emanations of polluted air into the atmosphere. It should be noted that the emissions of gases by burning, is greater than those generated by the automotive and industrial park as a whole.

How did the Amazon fire start?

There are many debates that have arisen due to this catastrophe while the fire of the Amazon rainforest continues advancing by leaps and bounds.

One of the responsibilities lies with Brazil, since, in addition to owning about 65% of the Amazon, it is accused of promoting the start of fire by encouraging and supporting cattle ranches and farmers in order to increase the export of raw materials of corn, soybeans, beef and cattle pastures, as well as hydroelectric projects that undermine the Amazon River basins in exchange for better economic stability for the nation and strengthening its real currency.

For its part, Brazil accuses the European Union of violating international agreements and treaties on environmental and anti-slavery rights, due to counting among its nations the most prominent countries for their interest in the permanence and development of hydroelectric companies and financing of wood industries. They generate the largest export of tropical timber in the Amazon, and cause not only the destruction of the forest, but also invade and destroy the territories of the indigenous, forcing them to abandon their culture and take them to forced labor.

The Amazonian tribes that in their time were counted by millions now realize they are only a few thousand who require protection to be able to live with their culture and customs.

SOLUTIONS TO SAVE THE AMAZON

Representatives of environmental organizations agree that joint efforts must be combined to fight together and not separated from their trenches to achieve a real impact on governments and laws

that curb the ecological devastation in the Amazon and boost the reforestation of the planet’s lung.

This awareness must reach the world rulers, businesses and reach the common citizen so that he can understand that not only the food he consumes, the clothing that adorns him, the medicines and products that improve his health and embellish him, the climate that characterizes its region, its labor practices, all this depends on the existence of the Amazon rainforest Colombia.

One of the reforestation initiatives is the Sow a Tree project. This consists of obtaining small donations from the entire world population that contributes to reducing the ecological footprint, through which, the ecological organizations together with the local indigenous people plant a tree in the Amazon with the name of the donor.

It is proposed to expand the protected national parks because it has been observed that not only has the fauna and flora been conserved, but also the permanence of indigenous communities and the promotion of their culture.

Promote the implementation of sanction laws on companies that violate international treaties on the protection of nature, human rights and wildlife protection.

Promote the change to a healthier lifestyle that implies less consumption of meat, soy and corn from other countries, which implies the rational use of local and regional resources of each nation, as well as adopting really sustainable practices with the environment , such as recycling, reducing and reusing.

WHAT SAVING THE AMAZON IS DOING

Through the dissemination of information, Saving the Amazon is raising awareness among individuals, businesses, international organizations and countries to protect the Amazon from the imminent danger of its disappearance, curb unbalanced deforestation and guarantee the home of indigenous populations and hundreds of species. unique and necessary to maintain balance in nature.

As well as other environmental organizations, Saving the Amazon, demands that countries enact environmental laws that impede and forcefully punish those responsible for the degradation to which the Amazon is being subjected, as well as comply with those already established in defense of human rights and thus protect indigenous communities and their rights over their territories.

Promote responsible consumption habits among the general population, regardless of where they live in order to achieve a healthier lifestyle and in harmony with the environment.

HOW CAN YOU HELP THE AMAZON?

After knowing the underlying problem that threatens the continuity of human life as it is known, surely many think of how I help the Amazon. Well, there are many real and simple options that can be made from home.

One of them is to participate actively in the project donates a tree to the Amazon. There are many international environmental organizations that promote sustainable development actions in order to reforest areas where human ambition has caused destruction.

With each donation, it is possible to plant a tree with the help and participation of the members of the local indigenous communities, which reduces the carbon footprint and gives the hope of a better tomorrow.

Another important recommendation is to soak up more on the subject and change the lifestyle to one that is more friendly and environment friendly, so that it can be kept much healthier and less polluting. It is true that you cannot change the world, but you can change your own lifestyle. It must be remembered that you are not the only person on the planet who is making your changes.

It is encouraged to disseminate information among acquaintances and friends, as well as to the family itself. Help the earth by promoting the culture of reusing, recycling and reducing.

Humanity has the natural right to enjoy the benefits that the Amazon rainforest brings to the planet. Not only will the significant effect on climate stability and control of the greenhouse effect be seen, but every descendant of humanity will appreciate it.

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Compromiso con la selva

Saving the Amazon trabaja por la reforestación de la región amazónica.

Por: Redacción

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